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Energy exploration, production, transportation and use are activities that contribute the most towards climate change through the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Most of our energy is derived from fossil fuels like crude oil, coal and natural gas and it is used for generating electricity, making petroleum products as well as other non-energy uses.

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

The Clean Development Mechanism is a method by which developed countries can fulfil their obligations to reduce CO2 emissions through investment in clean energy technologies in developing countries. Investments are in the form of long term agreements to buy Carbon Emission Reductions (CERs).  This provides additional income stream, which may bridge the gap for an unviable project to become viable, as opposed to business as usual which releases CO2 emissions. Projects that have received interest so far include bagasse and wood waste fired power generation, energy efficiency, used oil and hydro power.

A Designated National Authority has been set up in the Meteorological Department to assist in the development of CDM projects and to oversee the verification of submitted projects. Swaziland has abundant sources of waste from the Agro- industries. There is need to increase local generation of heat and power using waste. This will also be increasing the use of indigenous resources in the energy sector. Some of the potential projects that have been identified include; Ubombo Sugar Limited Bagasse Co-generation Project, wood stove programme (through the voluntary carbon market and the Programme of Basic Energy Conservation, PROBEC) and Mini and Micro Hydro Cluster.

There is also a need to encourage the use of efficient light bulbs while also ensuring that they are affordable and proper waste disposal methods are in place as mercury used in making these efficient light bulbs is toxic and harmful to humans and the environment. There is a need to incentives the use of the light bulbs to deter consumers away from the normal incandescent bulbs however the Swaziland Standards Authority needs to be involved in setting minimum standards for the quality of these bulbs.

The Ministry will continue to build capacity within the Department to encourage and support developments under Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and other similar arrangements.

Initiatives addressing climate change

  • Ethanol blending
  • Energy efficiency and conservation
  • Promotion of renewable energy and cogeneration


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