Contacts Details

Head Office

Telephone: (+268) 2404 2476/7/8

Fax: (+268) 2404 3357


Tinkhundla are the third level of governance and they are for all intents and purposes local government institutions. Tinkhundla administration is back to back local councils but excludes (City Councils, Town Council and Town Boards). There are presently 59 Tinkhundla centres in the country. in terms of section 218 sub-section 2 of the Constitution, the primary purpose of the Inkhundla is to bring the services closer to the people and let them take charge of their own development. The Bucopho together with their communities initiate, compile and co ordinate development projects and programmes within chiefdoms.

Tinkhundla are foundation for the bottom-up development planning process and the delivery of local services in partnership with central government. Tinkhundla also provide a platform through which traditional leadership participates meaningfully in the administration and development of local areas.

The Inkhundla Council (Bucopho) comprises of:-



  • Management of the day to day activities of Tinkhundla centres
  • Daily maintenance of structure and upkeep of the inkhundla precinct
  • Create awareness of planning and budgeting activities to assist with procurement at that level
  • Improve information dissemination
  • Establish and manage a data base management system
  • Development of mechanisms for information dissemination
  • Coordination of development programmes at the local level
  • General administration of the Inkhundla






                                                     VITAL STATISTICS

Currency: Emalangeni (E) for plural, Lilangeni singular, on par with the South African rand

Major towns: 1.Capital City t; Mbabane

Largest City ; Manzini

Population (2017): 1 093 236

Geographical size & Location: 17 360 sq km, 

Official Languages: SiSwati & English

System of Government: Tinkhundla

GDP growth rate: 1.9%

GDP per capita: US $ 3639

Inflation rate (2011 estimates): 4.8%

Human Development Index: 0.498

Literacy rate: 89.1 %

Life expectancy: Males – 58;85 years  Females – 63;52 years

Major Religion(s): Majority Christian, plus indigenous beliefs and small representations of other

major world faiths

Climate: Swaziland’s predominant summer rainfall season between October and March is

characterized by occasional heavy downpours. The eastern side has a tropical sub humid with

approx 60cm mean average rainfall. Midsummer (January) temperatures are known to reach 42

Degrees Celsius.

Average Temperatures

Midsummer: Mbabane (25 degrees c) Manzini (30 degrees c)

Autumn: Mbabane (20 degrees c) Manzini (25 degrees c)

Midwinter: Mbabane (15 degrees c) Manzini (20 degrees c)

Spring: Mbabane (22 degrees c) Manzini (25 degrees c)


The Swazi Flag


The Royal/Government Coat of Arms

The lion (Ingwenyama) represents the King and the elephant (Indlovukazi, or great she-elephant) depicts the Queen Mother. Both are supporting a Swazi shield. Above the shield is the King’s crown of feathers, which is worn during the Incwala Ceremony. At the bottom is the national motto “Siyinqaba” - We are the fortress.

Swaziland has always been a land of kings and since the building of the nation, a line of kings has led the people. During the 15 th and 16 centuries, Africans of Nguni descent migrated southwards from Central Africa under the leadership of Dlamini III and under th Ngwane III, in the mid 18 century, some of them settled in the area which today is Shiselwini in southern Swaziland. These people, the Nkosi Dlamini, became known as Swazis and today the usage of both names continues. Nkosi means king and Dlamini is the surname of the royal family. The royal line of Dlamini dates back to about 1550. During King Mbandzeni’s reign the British dismantled the Zulu kingdom in 1879 and to secure ongoing independence and avoid land grabbing by South Africa, he made a series of grazing, mining and trade concessions. This attracted unscrupulous agents and opportunists and ironically resulted in loss of territorial independence as concessions were converted to freehold title in the Land Partition of 1907. Until 1894, the kingdom was ruled by a provisional government comprising Boer, British and Swazi. At that point, Swaziland became a protectorate of South Africa under King Bhunu and when Britain won the Anglo Boer War in 1902, that power administered the country as a protectorate until independence in1968.

Queen Gwamile, who was the Regent until Sobhuza II, ascended the throne, was a firm believer in books and education as the foundation for the nation’s growth and after primary school, young Sobhuza, the father of the present King, attended the Lovedale Mission College in the Cape Province of South Africa. He became the world’s longest reigning monarch and throughout his rule, he devoted himself to regaining the lost land, establishing a fund to enable its repurchase. This was a period of stability, rapid economic growth and development.

Following Sobhuza’s death in 1982, Queen Dzeliwe became regent until the young heir, Prince Makhosetive, returned home from Sherborne School in England, and following year in 1986, aged only 18 years, he was installed as King Mswati III. Mswati has established an amended constitution and heads a nation in which ancient traditions and culture work hand in hand with modern technology, economic practice and infrastructure that attract investors from all over the world.

Choosing the King
The heir to the throne is chosen accordingto his mother’s status as a Queen Mother
is selected based on her high rank, by the Royal Council following the king’s death. The King is always a Dlamini and never intermarries so the Queen Mother is never a Dlamini. The king must be her only son and is expected to choose wives from various clans to ensure national unity. The monarchy is a dual one with the balance of power lying with the King - Ngwenyama (or lion) - and the Queen Mother, who is the Ndlovukazi (she elephant). The Royal Council plays a key role in the selection of the heir to the throne. He must be unmarried, and if still a minor, the Queen Mother to the late King assumes the responsibility of Regent until the Crown Prince becomes the Ngweny ama.

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